The shift towards a new paradigm started in 1993-94, as the patriotic left realised the need for a real debate on its achievements and its strategy to achieve independence and social justice. The Spanish government had managed to isolate it through the Antiterrorist Pact and by portraying the liberation process as an exclusively bipolar conflict between ETA and the state, excluding other actors and thereby distorting the political nature of the conflict. On the other hand, the limits of ETA’s military strategy and its failure to force the Spanish government to engage in substantial political negotiations were seen in the Algerian talks. The debate was also influenced by a changing international context, especially with regards to independence processes in the former Soviet Union, and the peace processes in El Salvador, South Africa and Ireland.

From the Forum of Ireland to the Lizarra-Garazi Agreement

The Democratic Alternative
The Forum of Ireland
Talk attempts
Conclusion of the Lizarra-Garazi process

The Anoeta Proposal and the unfinished peace process

Batasuna’s “Scenario for Peace”
State repression and the banning of Batasuna
Zapatero and the peace process
Conclusion of the Anoeta process