Origins of the Basque conflict


The creation of the new Basque resistance


The Spanish transition


Negotiation attempts


Formation of a new paradigm: the democratic process


Epilogue: current state of play and new strategy of the abertzale left

The text was originally published as part of the “Berghof Series on Resistance/Liberation Movements and Transition to Politics” You can find the whole document (here).

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Table of contents:

Origins of the Basque conflict

Historical roots of the conflict
The national conflict: historical and language confrontation
The Spanish and French states facing the Basque conflict: the theory of privilege
The search for an agreement

The creation of the new Basque resistance

Historical background for the emergence of ETA
Foundation and ideological evolution of ETA

The Spanish transition

Reorganisation of ETA during the last years of Francoism

From the Burgos trial to the last executions of Francoism
ETA’s split

From the Law for Political Reform to the Spanish Constitution

Spanish and Basque opposition forces
The division of the Southern land
The patriotic front: Txiberta meetings and the failure of unity
The constitutional process and the creation of Herri Batasuna

Conclusions: unfinished business

Negotiation attempts

The extended war
The Algiers process and its failure
Conclusion of the Algiers process

Formation of a new paradigm: the democratic process

From the Forum of Ireland to the Lizarra-Garazi Agreement

The Democratic Alternative
The Forum of Ireland
Talk attempts
Conclusion of the Lizarra-Garazi process

The Anoeta Proposal and the unfinished peace process

Batasuna’s “Scenario for Peace”
State repression and the banning of Batasuna
Zapatero and the peace process
Conclusion of the Anoeta process

Epilogue: current state of play and new strategy of the abertzale left